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biographie de J.R.R TOLKIEN en anglais
Bonjour tout le monde! J'ai rédigé une biographie de tolkien en anglais et comme je sais que certains d'entres vous son anglophones, alors svp pouvez vous la relire ( je n'ais pas relu la fin donc la traduction risque d'etre un peu...)

merci d'avance!

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on January 3, 1892 in Bloemfontein, capital of the free Orange state, in South Africa His mother, Mabel Suffield comes from a family of tradesmen of the Midlands which went bankrupt, as for his father, Arthur Tolkien, his family is of German, but perfectly comparable origin with England ; the father of Arthur went bankrupt in the trade of piano and this one earns its living as bank clerk. It is to earn money more quickly than Arthur left for South Africa in 1888, Mabel joined to marry with him in 1891. In 1894 was born Hilary Arthur Reuel, the brother of John. February 15, 1896, whereas his wife and her children are in Birmingham at the family of Mabel, Arthur Tolkien dies of a haemorrhage.

The Ronald young person (it is by this first name which one calls it in his family) spends the year in his maternal grandparents who he appreciates much (he wrote "Although Tolkien by the name, I am Suffield by my tastes, my talents and my education").

In summer 1896, Mabel finds a small house of countryside with Sarehole, in the south of Birmingham. she and the children remain 4 years there. The place is idyllic and it is here that Ronald learns how to like nature, the trees in particular. His mother deals with her education: it can read at 4 years and is shown very gifted in language (it prefers Latin with French because of sonority), in botany and drawing. At seven years he writes his first history (a history of dragons). Into June 1900 his mother converts with Catholicism, which creates serious divisions with its family. In September Ronald is allowed with the college King Edward, and to reduce the way, they move in the suburbs of Birmingham, in Moseley. The corner is sinister, but it discovers by chance Welsh, language which will impassion him, by reading the inscriptions on the coaches which pass close to the house.

In 1902 they move in Edgbaston, another suburbs of Birmingham, the children enter with St Philip, a catholic college where the rights are less low than in King Edward. But education is of a too low level and Ronald turns over to King Edward the following year. It is as in 1902 as they become acquainted with the Father Francis Morgan, a catholic priest who became the friend of the family. In 1903 Ronald learns the Greek, discovers Shakespeare (he hates Shakespeare) and the Middle English (who fascine him). In 1904 Mabel learns that she has diabetes they spend the summer all together to Rednal, in a hamlet from countryside. But in November, Mabel fall into the coma and dies 6 days afterwards.
The Francis Father became the tutor of the 2 children. In 1905 they will live at an aunt. Ronald is interested much in the study of the languages, discovering the Gothic, and inventing personal languages. In neighbors, Ronald becomes acquainted with Edith Bratt, who will become his wife. Ronald became friends with Edith, orphan as him (in fact she was illegitimate), and in 1909 they declare their flame, he had 17 years and she 20. But the Francis father realizes of their love and is opposed to it, fearing for the future of the boy: in same time Ronald fails the examinations of purse for Oxford. In January 1910, Ronald and its brother must move, especially to move away Edith to Ronald. But the two young people always see themselves, and the Francis father prohibited in Ronald any communication with the girl. In December Ronald obtains a purse for the college of Exeter, in Oxford.

At the university, the Tolkien young person seems to turn the page, and to forgot Edith. His life during these years is shared between work and the student activities: sport, newspapers student and especially clubs and associations. Those will form during years a great part of the social life of Tolkien. With Wiseman and Robert Quilter Gilson, they shaped the T.C.B.S. (Tea Club Barrovian Society), born from evenings passed to take the tea and to discuss at the library King Edward.

In 1911 it discovers Kalevala, collection of poems of the Scandinavian mythology, which will inspire to him for some of these stories. In summer 1911, he went on a journey in Switzerland with his brother and after he went back to Oxford where it is invested completely: it makes Rugby, fact part of the club of the test, dialectical company, of Stapelton, and melts the Club of Apolaustiques. he becomes acquainted with Joseph Wright, professor of compared philology. he read also Kalevala in original version and he said "It was like discovering a cellar full of bottles of an extraordinary wine and a taste hitherto unknown. I as soothsayers passably drunk ". Finnish influenced much the languages which it starts to create, Quenya (elfic language in these books) for example. It is also in connection with the poems of Kalevala which he says "I would like that it us remains about it more - of what was of this kind and which belonged to English."

But it did not forget Edith... In 1913, the so much awaited moment arrives: it is 21 years old and can thus again see Edith. He writes a letter to her, but she answers him that she has just become maryed, despairing to have her news. It thus leaves to join it, convince it to leave poor George Field, and Marie with her. It passes in second year and moves towards the English literature, in the section of the philologists and the medievists. It spends the summer to France like guides of a group of Mexicans, travels which will leave him a very bad memory: in addition to an unhappy accident (one of the traveller dies), a visit with Dinard, whereas it was delighted to see Brittany, as well as the mentality of certain Parisian, confirm it in its gallophobia.

In January 1914 Edith in the catholic Church (a little with contrec?ur is received) and they marry officially. In summer he visits Cornouailles, where he is astounded by the beauty of the sea, he draws the Voyage from it from Eärendel, poem which will be improved much to become the base of Silmarillion (one of its books). But the war arrives and it remains in Oxford to pass its diploma, it begins the adaptation of a poem of Kalevala: history of Kullervo, which will become later Narn I Hîn Húrin, history of Túrin Turambar. After a meeting of the T.C.B.S. at the end of 1914, it decides that he will be poet. In summer 1915, it is received in the first class for its last examination and is enrôlé in the fusiliers of Lancashire.

March 22, 1916 Edith and Ronald marry in Warwick and in June Ronald leaves for France, with the face in the Sum. It knows the horror of the trenches, which removes to him two of his/her very expensive friends of the T.C.B.S.: Bob Gilson and G.B. Smith. In November, it catches what is called the fever of distinct and must turn over to England. It is during its convalescence, the beginning of 1917, that it begins the Book of the lost Tales, the first history being the Fall of Gondolin. The languages which it creates (Quenya and Sindarin) are already very complex and it works again there, just as it works out family tree for its heroes. In the Book of the lost Tales come to be added the Epic of the Children of Húrin and the tale of Beren and Lúthien. In November 1917 is born John, his son. He passes the end of the war to England, and to the armistice the Tolkien family comes to move in in Oxford.

Does Ronald work with the development D? a Dictionary where his/her colleagues admire his work, his mastery of the Anglo-Saxon and the Germanic languages. In 1919 it gives private courses and rents a small house. In 1920 its courses bring back enough money to him and it leaves the team of the Dictionary. It obtains a station of reader at the University of Leeds, where the industrial grisaille contrasts with Oxford. Its second wire, Michael Hilary Reuel, are born in October. At the end of 1921, his wife and her children come to join it in Leeds.

It collaborates in the establishment of a Anglo-Saxon lexicon with colleagues of Leeds. A new reader arrives in 1922: E.V. Gordon. With him, Tolkien works with a new edition of the poem as Middle English Lord Gauvain and the Green Knight. But they are in addition to good friends, they melt a club Viking with students, which makes them very popular. Tolkien writes also some poems between the copies of examination to be corrected. In May 1923 it catches a pneumonia, which does not prevent it from practically finishing the Book of the lost legends, that it renames Silmarillion. In 1924 it is named professor of English, in 32 years, i.e. very young person, while is born his third wire, Christopher. In summer 1925, it is elected professor of Anglo-Saxon in Oxford.

Of return in Oxford, it becomes acquainted with C.S. Lewis, that her friends call Jack, in May 1926. Tolkien melts Coalbiters ("eat-embers ", name that the old Icelanders gave to silent sitted in front of fire) to give a more significant place to the Icelander in the program of the students in languages. In 1929 is born the first girl, Priscilla. In 1930 Tolkien move in a house a little more comfortable, to the 20 Northmoor Road.

It is about at that time that Tolkien starts to write the Hobbit, born stories which it told with his children. At the beginning of the Thirties are formed Inklings, a group of Christian friends of which the majority were interested in the literature. Inklings ("suspicions ", in English, with a pun on "ink") were composed of Lewis, Tolkien, of the brother of Lewis, R.E. Harvard, Owen Barfield and of Hugo Dyson. They took a great importance in the life of Tolkien, so much he liked to meet with a group of friends around a pipe for reading and discussing. Tolkien also takes part in various literary and linguistic work, in particular an edition of the long poem epic as Beowulf Middle English, and articles on the history of the English language.

The Hobbit is published in autumn 1937 by Allen & Unwin, it is a very great success and Stanley Unwin requires a continuation of him. Tolkien absolutely makes a point of making publish Silmarillion, but Stanley makes him understand that it is not until people wait. At the end of 1937, Tolkien thus starts to write one following the Hobbit, which will become the Lord of the Rings. The account will undergo very many transformations before being published. There Tolkien begins a book of a new kind, narrowly combining the mythological "size" of Silmarillion with humour and the spirit more "general public" of the Hobbit. In 1939 it gives a conference to Universitéde St Andrews in the honor of Andrew Lang on the conference, Fairy tales where it evokes its step of writer and creator: to make the one "Second creation", which enriches and embellishes the real world.
Tolkien will spend fifteen years to write this book, with the many ones with blows, stops due to the lack of time (during the war are added to its ordinary tasks of the English courses to the young recruits of the army, as well as the participation in the effort of war: civil defence days before, breeding of hens...) but also with the discouragement. The departure in South Africa of his/her preferred son, Christopher, for the drive in aviation, was difficult to live. But Tolkien writes tous.les.jours to him, progressively sending to him the chapters of the Lord of the Rings. That gives him a new energy for the writing of its book.

In 1949, it finishes the first jet of its text. Several years devoted follow to revise then to type the text (with two fingers!). A quarrel with its editor, Allen & Unwin, still delays the publication. Tolkien would have liked to publish Silmarillion initially (still unfinished), and was wary of its editor, who had it already once rejected. But George Unwin and its son estimated much the work of Tolkien, and they ended up being intended to publish the Lord of the Rings initially, then Silmarillion when this one would be finished.

The conditions of publication did not like Tolkien much: because of the price of paper at the time, the book was divided into 3 parts in order to better sell it. But the first two volumes were finally published in 1954, gaining enough a Net success of the public and criticism. In 1955, after a time of with the clothes industry of the chart (by Christopher, on the indications of his/her father) and of the appendices, the last part of the Lord of the Rings is published. The sales increase regularly until 1965, surprising the author as well as the editor. This year, the American edition comes to multiply by ten the success of the Hobbit and the Lord of the Rings. Clubs of fans are created everywhere in the world, and Tolkien is translated in about fifty languages.

In 1959, Tolkien takes its retirement, but remains in Oxford. In 1963 it named honorary member of the college of Exeter and highly skilled member of the college of Merton. It spends much time to correct the Lord of the Rings and especially to re-examine Silmarillion, which it does not seem to be solved to finish. In 1967, it feels the weight of old age, and its reflexion, its sadness, give Smith of Wootton Major. In 1968, victim of success, but also because their house is not easy to maintain, Tolkien and his wife move with Poole, meadows of the seaside resort of Bournemouth.

But Edith dies on November 29, 1971, leaving unconsoled Tolkien. On its tomb, it makes register "Lúthien" (one of the characters d?une history of the silmarillon). Tolkien thus goes back to Oxford, where the college of Merton invites it to be honorary member resident, i.e. that one provides him a house and of the personnel to deal with him. In 1972, it receives a C.B.E. of the hands of the queen and an honorary doctorate of letter on behalf of Oxford for its contribution to philology.

August 28, 1973 it goes to Denis Tolhurst to Bournemouth, fall sick the following day, is sent to the hospital and dies finally the morning of September 2, 1973, at 81 years. It is buried in Oxford with his wife, and on their tomb one finds the epitaph following: Edith Mary Tolkien, Lúthien, 1889-1971 John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Beren, 1892-1973. It is to his/her Christopher son that it will be given to finally publish the major texts of the under-creation of Tolkien, with Silmarillion, the Tales and Unfinished Legends and the series History of Middle Earth.
C'est marrant, moi j'aurai voulu la même chose mais en français... le monde est étrange Smile

Une biographie...?
Comme Garion j'aurais préferé cette biographie en français (pas anglophone mais j'y travaille Wink )

J'ai juste une question : Pourquoi une biographie alors qu'il y en a tellement ?
(sorry si ma question est un peu bete... Sad )

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